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Concurrent sentence; consecutive sentence; specific performance. A guilty plea is not knowingly and intelligently made, and therefore not voluntarily made, if the defendant did not receive adequate notice of the offense to which he pleaded guilty. A capital defendant accused of an interracial crime is entitled to have prospective jurors informed of the race of the victim and questioned on the issue of racial bias.

Administrative Procedures Act allows federal courts to compel agency action unlawfully withheld and unreasonably delayed only for claims involving a specific agency action—a rule, order, license, sanction, or relief—required of agency by law. EPA; he Clean Air Act only mandates that residual risk standards provide an ample margin of safety to protect public health, and the EPA is free to determine that existing technology-based standards are ample. To go forward on a claim of selective prosecution based on race, the claimant must produce evidence that similarly situated offenders of a different race could have been prosecuted but were not. For speedy trial claims, courts must apply balancing test of conduct of both prosecution and defendant, including length of delay, reason for delay, defendant's assertion of his right, and prejudice to defendant. The fifth amendment privilege against self incrimination is not violated by a requirement that a defendant provide notice of an alibi defense and disclose his alibi witnesses to the prosecution prior to trial. Government failure to assist defense by disclosing impeachment evidence of witnesses is constitutional violation if it deprived defendant of fair trial; material if suppression undermines confidence in outcome. It is not vindictive exercise of prosecutor's discretion, and therefore not violation of due process, to carry out threat to reindict defendant on more serious charges if defendant does not plead guilty to original offense charged. A voluntary and intelligent plea of guilty made by an accused person, who has been advised by competent counsel, may not be collaterally attacked.

Controlling shareholder; control of sale; presumtion that, in making a business decision, corporate directors act on an informed basis, in good faith, and in the honest belief that the action taken is in the company's best interests. Louisiana-Pacific Resources, Inc; The Commerce Clause is not implicated by a statute that regulates corporations even-handedly and imposes no special or distinct burden on out-of-state interests; dormant commerce clause; straight voting. Mc Kesson HBOC, Inc.; stockholder has right to make written demand to inspect corporate books and records for purpose reasonably related to person's interest as stockholder; derivative action; parent corporation; subsidiary corporation. Verizon Communications, Inc; Stockholders seeking inspection of corporate books and records must present some evidence suggest credible basis from which court can infer mismanagement, waste, or wrongdoing may have occurred.

Direct action; special injury test disapproved for determining whether a direct action exists; standing to assert direct action depends on whether the individual, not the corporation, suffered harm and would benefit from the recovery or remedy. F & W Acquisition LLC, recission, fraud, contracts may not be rescinded based on misrepresentations made during negotiations unless one party to contract made misrepresentations, knowing them to be false. Derivative Litigation, A director's independence turns on whether the director is, for any substantial reason, incapable of making a decision with only the best interests of the corporation in mind.

Causes of divorce; divorce costs; divorce laws; divorce advice; divorce attorney; dissolution of marriage; division of marital assets; divorce separation agreement; dividing marital assets; dividing marital property. Allegations in the complaint, taken together, must give rise to an inference that the defendant acted with the requisite scienter of false statements, knowing. Leonard; determining relationship includes reasonable expectation of significant investor control, and not investment contract, courts look beyond formal terms of documents circumstances surrounding relationship.; passive., Inc; A Rule 506 exemption is not forfeited when the issuer of stock makes a good faith effort to comply with its disclosure requirements; advice of councel; exemption; good faith. The standard for determining whether a defendant is competent to waive the right to counsel and to enter a guilty plea is the same as the standard for determining whether the defendant is competent to stand trial.

Disbar for alcohol abuse; detection and prevention of alcohol and substance abuse in the legal profession; alcoholic lawyer; disbarment for drug abuse; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics; CLE. If defendant plea of guilty is based on reasonably competent advice, it is intelligent plea not open to attack on the ground defendant counsel may have misjudged admissibility of defendant confession. When a prospective juror harbors preconceived notions of defendant guilt that cannot be set aside by consideration of the evidence, the juror must be dismissed for cause to ensure an impartial jury. When the evidence discloses any possibility that a juror views arise from the sufficiency of government evidence, disqualification must be denied.

Mc Nulty; Ordinarily, the conduct of an attorney is imputed to his client, since allowing a party to evade the consequences of the acts or omissions of his freely selected agent would be inconsistent with system of representative litigation. Mitsubishi Motors Corp; When a lawyer inadvertently receives materials that obviously appear to be subject to attorney-client privilege or otherwise confidential and privileged, the lawyer must immediately notify the sender. CITGO Petroleum Corp; Non-refundable retainer fees and other non-refundable provisions in attorney fee agreements will be upheld if reasonable; sophisticated client; contract is in writing; incurred expenses. UBS Warburg LLC; Once a party reasonably anticipates litigation, it must suspend its routine document retention/destruction policy and put in place a litigation hold to ensure the preservation of relevant documents; spoliation. City of New York; To prevail on a claim for denial of a fair trial due to prejudicial publicity, the plaintiff must establish (1) improper leaks; (2) in fact denied a fair trial; and (3) other remedies were not available or used to no avail. Environmental Assessment; when an agency has no ability to prevent a certain effect, the agency cannot be considered a legally relevant cause of such effect; so under NEPA, the agency need not consider these effects in its EA. United States; Mere knowledge that spills and leaks occur after the sale of a chemical product is insufficient for concluding the seller "arranged for" disposal of hazardous chemical for CERCLA liability. Preventative detention of criminal defendant does not violate substantive due process under fifth amendment nor constitute excessive bail under eighth amendment if clear and convincing evidence defendant presents threat to safety of community.

Under Communications Act of 1934, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates interstate telephone communications using a traditional regulatory system similar to what other commissions regulating other common carriers. Mukasey; An immigration judge's credibility determination must be based on specific, cogent reasons that bear a legitimate nexus to the findings; asylum and protection; Convention Against Torture; Board of Immigration Appeals . Sale of securities falls under 10(b) of the Securites and Exchange Act of 1934; section 10(b) forbids the use of any manipulative or deceptive device or contrivance relating to the sale of a security that is misleading or operates as a fraud or deceit. The Chase Manhattan Bank; Boilerplate successor obligor clauses do not permit assignment of the public debt to another party in the course of a liquidation unless to a single purchaser. RJR Nabisco, Inc.; When there is no express covenant restricting the incurring of new debt, and no perceived direction to that end from the express covenants, the court will not imply a covenant. Bolger; A derivative action that alleges only a breach of the duty of care, and not a breach of the duty of loyalty, does not require separate legal representation of the corporate plaintiff and the management defendants. RCO AG Credit, Inc.; When the court requires a plaintiff in a derivative action to post a bond for the defendant's anticipated attorney's fees and costs, the defendant may not recover costs or fees greater than that bond. Oak Industries, Inc.; The relationship between a corporation and its bondholders is contractual in nature, and the rights and obligations of the parties will be spelled out in the documentation of that relationship. Allied Artists Picture Corporation; When and in what amounts dividends will be declared rests in the honest discretion of the directors, assuming the absence of fraud or a gross abuse of discretion. Delaware corporate law authorizes the indemnification of an officer's legal expenses when the officer has been successful in the underlying proceeding, as well as the advancement of expenses in pending proceedings. Goodyear; a shareholder derivative action must state with particularity any effort made by the plaintiff to obtain the desired action from the directors and the reasons for not obtaining the action or making the effort. Shareholder Litigation; to obtain a preliminary injunction, must demonstrate (1) a reasonable probability of success on the merits, (2) will suffer irreparable harm, and (3) the balance of the equities Nixon v. China Media Express Holdings, Inc.; shareholder may inspect the books and records of a corporation to investigate fraud and mismanagement, and the ability of the board to act independently and in good faith. In re MFW Shareholders Litigation; business judgment rule standard of review applies to controlling stockholder merger if procedural safeguards followed; majority of the minority stockholder approval. Imposition of death sentence for murder in the first degree is not void under due process clause solely because trial court considered additional information from probation department and other sources. Right to a jury trial is not violated by pennsylvania mandatory minimum sentencing act.

State law may impose restrictions affecting one company's ability to acquire control of another without running afoul of federal law or the Commerce Clause; target corporation; tender offer; Williams Act. Handy; Delaware law protects members and managers of an LLC from liability for obligations of the LLC solely by reason of being or acting as LLC members or managers, but not for other reasons; piercing the corporate veil. Flahive; common law doctrine of piercing the corporate veil is not abrogated by the Limited Liability Company Act and may be used against limited liability company members in appropriate cases. Segal; Because LLCs are not creature of state but of contract, duties and obligations of the LLC members are as set forth in the LLC agreement; implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing; post hoc; sine qua non. Tignor; Only when present circumstances show that it is not reasonably practicable to carry on company's business in accord with articles of organization and any operating agreement may court order dissolution of LLC. Brevig; In dissolution because it is no longer reasonably practicable for a partnership to carry on its business, the partnership assets must be liquidated and the net surplus in cash must be distributed to the partners. Superior Court; Laws that regulate securities trading do not relate to the internal affairs of a corporation, so lawsuits relating to the sales of securities are not governed solely by the state of incorporation. Wolff; Derivative suits on behalf of limited liability companies are allowed, based on the importance of the derivative suit in corporate law, and no evidence the Legislature intended to abolish in the Limited Liability Company Law. Airgas, Inc.; Defensive measures against takeovers are not impermissibly preclusive if they delay a bidder from obtaining control of a board as long as obtaining control in the future is realistically attainable. Blackwell; absent specific contractual provisions, a minority shareholder is not entitled to relief from majority approved corporate actions in a closely held corporation. may impose minimum upon finding, by a preponderance of the evidence, of certain facts.

Greenmail; interloper; standing; shareholder must have a proper purpose reasonably related to his interest as a stockholder and must further prove some credible evidence of wrongdoing sufficient to warrant continued investigation. 275 Madison Management Corp; A managing general partner of a limited partnership may be removed from the partnership by a limited partner if the managing partner's agent engages in fraudulent conduct. Irving; Where members of a limited liability partnership share no benefit with a partner accused of misconduct, have no direct supervision or control, and have no knowledge of the partner's misconduct, they are statutorily protected. Gursky; New York's Partnership Law provision limiting the personal liability of partners in an LLP does not shield a general partner in a registered LLP from personal liability for breaches of the partnership's or partners' obligations to each o Taghipour v. Sieg; Under Utah law, a sale of property is defined as the conveyance of title to the purchaser for a valuable consideration consisting of the purchase price, or contract of sale, whereby some estate in land passes. In the Matter of 1545 Ocean Avenue, LLC; A petitioner who seeks dissolution of an LLC must establish, in the operating agreement or articles of incorporation, that management is unable or unwilling to permit or promote the stated purpose. (Tyson I); Directors may not ask for shareholder approval of an incentive stock option plan and then later to distribute shares in such a way as to undermine the objectives of that plan. Gifford; The intentional violation of a shareholder approved stock option plan, coupled with fraudulent disclosures, constitutes conduct that is disloyal to the corporation and is therefore an act in bad faith. Shareholder Litigation; When the interests of common stockholders diverge from preferred stockholders, the directors of a corporation have a duty to exercise their discretion in favor of the interests of common stockholders. United States; When liability under Rule 10b-5 is predicated on a defendant's failure to disclose a material fact, positive proof of reliance is not a prerequisite to recovery. Corinthian Colleges, Inc.; A complaint for securities fraud must allege loss causation, so that the defendant is provided notice of what the relevant economic loss might be or the causal connection. Shareholder Litigation; Acquisition tender offer by a controlling shareholder must be non-coercive: non-waivable majority of the minority tender condition; consummate a prompt short-form merger; no retributive threats. Defendant possessed a firearm during enumerated offense.

Certifying a corporation's financial condition, question for the jury, fairly presented the financial condition of a corporation, generally accepted accounting priniciples, generally accepted auditing standards, material, materiality. Superior Court; A disclaimer in a standard job application advising an applicant that he or she need not complete certain sections as provided by local law must be clear and conspicuous . Proctor Hospital; Under the cat's paw theory, discriminatory animus of non-decisionmakers can be imputed to decisionmakers only when the non-decisionmaker has a singular influence over the decisionmaker and uses that influence. Metropolitan Government Nashville; Under Title VII, an employee may "oppose" unlawful employment practice as required as a condition precedent to a retaliation claim even though opposition is not expressed as a discrimination claim. De Stefano; Under Title VII, before an employer can engage in intentional discrimination for the asserted purpose of avoiding or remedying an unintentional disparate impact, must have a strong basis to believe disparate-impact liability. Schneider National, Inc.; An employer is free to decide that some physical and mental characteristics that do not constitute an impairment are more or less preferable and may make individual employees more or less suitable for the job. Legal Aid Society; Under the Americans with Disabilities Act and Rehabilitation Act (ADA), employers must accommodate requests that facilitate arrival and departure from workplace if no undue hardship on operation employer's business. Walters; Specific information provided by employer to employee, in course of employment, and for sole purpose of servicing employer's customers, is legally protectable as confidential proprietary information. Search of passenger compartment of automobile is permissible if officer has reasonable belief, based on specific and articulable facts and rational inferences from facts, that suspect is dangerous and may gain immediate control of weapons.

Initio Partners; In corporate litigation, the court may order the payment of counsel fees and related expenses to a plaintiff whose efforts resulted in the creation of a common fund or the conferring of a corporate benefit. Elevator Co., Inc.; Benefits accruing for services rendered prior to the bankruptcy petition ordinarily relate back to the date of the services but "retiree benefits" under the Bankruptcy Code have a priority claim. De Wolff, Boberg & Associates, Inc.; Although no remedy is available for individual injuries in defined contribution plan, individuals may recover for fiduciary breaches that impair the value of plan assets in the participant's individual account. Sixth amendment confrontation clause demands, for an out of court statement to be admitted into evidence, the witness must be unavailable and defendant must have prior opportunity to cross examine the declarant. The confrontation clause is not violated by the admission of a nontestifying codefendant confession, with proper limiting instruction, when the confession is redacted to eliminate defendant name and any reference to her existence. Under the fifth amendment, a prosecutor may not comment on a defendant s decision not to testify at his trial and the court may not instruct the jury that the defendant's silence is evidence of his guilt. The fifth amendment protection against double jeopardy bars trial of an acquitted defendant on another charge unless the prior acquittal was based on evidence other than that involved in the second prosecution. Person who has been held in criminal contempt for committing criminal offense may not be criminally prosecuted for committing underlying offense if prosecution for the criminal offense does not require proof of different facts. A penalty will implicate the double jeopardy clause only if there was a legislative intent that the penalty be criminal in nature and if the statutory scheme is so punitive as to make the remedy criminal. A judge may not increase a sentence beyond the maximum allowed for an offense based on facts not proven at trial or admitted as a part of the guilty plea. In order to challenge a death sentence on the basis of racial discrimination, a defendant must show either a discriminatory purpose in his case or a discriminatory purpose in enacting or maintaining the death penalty. Under the eighth amendment, bail must be reasonably fixed to ensure a defendant will appear at trial based on the specific facts of the crime charged and not the character of the crime. If have probable cause to believe automobile contains articles that they may be entitled to seize, may search the vehicle pursuant to lawful arrest, without warrant, or impound vehicle into police custody to search at later time. Voluntary consent of any joint occupant of a residence to search the premises jointly occupied is valid against the co-occupant, permitting evidence discovered in the search to be used against the latter at a criminal trial.

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When Congress mandates a specific definition of a statutory term, an agency cannot interpret the meaning of the term differently under its regulations. Twombly; sufficient factual allegations required for Fed. Judicial impartiality is not a compelling enough interest to justify suppressing candidates views, government regulations that supress speech on the basis of its content must be narrowly tailored, first amendment. Nontestimonial evidence obtained as a result of a defendant s voluntary statement given without the benefit of miranda warnings need not be excluded at the defendant's trial; fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine.

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